Studying Narratives in Small Spaces, Part 3: Conversations

At the Augmented & Virtual Reality roundtables at GDC 2015, there was consensus that moving a player through space made them uneasy. While in the future, I’m sure we’ll discover interesting tricks to ease the transition, what if we aren’t worried about that, and instead an entire interactive narrative experience happens in a single space?

This multi-part series examines inspirations for interactive narrative design in small spaces. These reviews are going to at times sound oddly mechanistic, as the goal is to focus on moments of potential narrative agency and player interaction. There is a separate movement towards Virtual Reality film, where one would semi-passively take in narrative in a virtual environment, but, as usual, I’m more interested in the interactive stuff.

In part of the series, let’s look at narratives that are one long conversation: 12 Angry Men, Circle, and The Man From Earth.

12 Angry Men

12 Angry Men is a well-known ensemble cast scene in the form of an argument between jury members discussing the guilt of the accused. Initially, all except one jury member thinks the accused is guilty, but the one dissenter brings the rest around until the unanimous verdict is not guilty. The setting is a single room, all 12 members around a large board table, while some side conversations happen in the adjacent bathroom. The time of day is mid-afternoon on “the hottest day of the year”, and the temperature continually rises during the play. I reviewed the 1957 movie, but this production had an interesting history, with its first iteration being a live teleplay on CBS in 1954. Only later was 12 Angry Men adapted for the stage, and then a movie.


In Circle, 50 people, unknown to each other, wake up in a dark room, each stuck in a red outline on the floor. Every two minutes, someone is killed by an energy emanating from a dark sphere in the centre. The group discovers they can mentally and anonymously vote for who dies next. They quickly reach a consensus to initially vote for the older people first, which buys them time to try to figure out what is happening. In this game of artificial scarcity, people must convince each other of their self-worth as their number is reduced from 50 to 1.

The Man From Earth

A professor has several of his friends show up at his house as he’s packing up to move on from his career to another stage of his life. On a whim, he tells them that he’s a Cro-Magnon, and has been alive for 14,000 years, moving from life to life so people don’t notice his immortality. He’s encountered many historical figures, and even been a few historical figures. The entire conversation takes place in his living room, with some brief moments outside. He initially poses his immortality as a hypothetical, which his academic friends eagerly take up as a thought experiment. When he tells them he actually is 14,000 years old, many get offended, but are eager to continue the conversation. To ease tension at the end, he tells them it was all a joke, though events at the end of the movie make it clear it was not.


All of these conversations take place in real time without major time jumps. The setting shows gradual progression of time. In 12 Angry Men, it starts hot and gets hotter. In The Man From Earth, the sun is setting and it gets darker and colder, while people crowd closer to the fireplace. In Circle, the setting is artificial constant; however, frames of the film start packed with people, and as people are killed off, frames are mostly filled with black negative space. 12 Angry Men particularly feels like a claustrophobic pressure cooker. The focal length is actually slowly reduced over the course of the film. In a Virtual Reality setting, similar effects over an hour could occur by having the set slowly shrink, or the lighting slowly change angle or colour.

“Show don’t tell” is a common maxim in storytelling. The settings for all these films are mundane; a board room, a living room with a fireplace, an dark room with red markings on the floor. Each of these films features every character giving rich narrations, of what happened in the court room (12 Angry Men) of his meeting with the Buddha (The Man From Earth), or of their dubiously honest biographies (Circle). There are long shots in each film of just a character’s face, speaking. I am constantly impressed with how engrossing these movies are, where if you get slightly distracted, you miss a really rich description. This is a surprising contrast to “show don’t tell”. Are these just well-written movies? Maybe. In 12 Angry Men, and Circle, the characters are captive, whereas in The Man From Earth, characters describe themselves as “trapped by the story”.

“Stage business” is a term for incidental physical activities that actors can do to occupy their hands, express their character, or maintain physical interest. The Man From Earth has the most stage business; the professor’s friends show up with assorted picnic-like food. Later, they serve whiskey and get closer to the fireplace, surrounding themselves with blankets and sweaters. In the middle of the movie, furniture movers show up to take all the couches and tables to the thrift store. For several minutes, all the characters need to stand up and walk around to avoid the movers, before settling back on the floor as the professor’s story continues. In 12 Angry Men, a prop floor plan showing the apartment where the murder took place is briefly taken out, and they adjourn for a bathroom break, where there are a few one-on-one conversations in the bathroom as jurors try to convince others to their side. Jurors are continually wiping sweat from the heat off themselves. Jurors use body language heavily to represent their opinions, leaning forward or backwards, or moving to the side of the table of people they agree with; they can also leave the table to lean against the wall or stare out the window. In one quietly intense scene, as one juror is monologuing, every other juror slowly turns to face away from him, to show they disagree.

All that people can bring is their individual perspectives, and impressions based on their appearance. In The Man From Earth, every character is an academic, which sort of makes it feel like a Robert J. Sawyer novel. They call out how perfect of a group it is to judge his story, a biblical literalist, a medical doctor, a philosopher, an anthropologist, a psychologist, and archeologist. One of the characters has a clearly faltering body and is dying of poor health and old age. He accuses the main character of possibly stealing everyone else’s life force. In Circle, everyone is judged first by their appearance, and later how much of a story they can muster up for why they shouldn’t have to die. Then they find out someone has had cancer, and debate killing her next. Turns out one guy only speaks Spanish and someone quickly decides that they might as well kill him since they can’t talk. They decide a while back that a pregnant mother and her other child (the only one in the group) will probably tie for last, which means one of them will have to kill the other, which is traumatic, so they determine they should make a choice between them earlier.

In 12 Angry Men, by stark contrast everyone is very similar in appearance: older-than-middle-age average-looking white professional men who live in New York wearing business clothes. You could assume this was the nature of casting in the 50s, but it becomes interesting how diverse the perspectives and opinions are, given that everyone starts looking similar. From these tiny differences, erupt a diversity of viewpoints. Some characters are loud, and grab your attention, which makes it more interesting when a quiet character gets their turn for your attention. A surprising theme in this movie is the abject hatred of poor people for being poor. The cast is entirely white, including the boy on trial, and if this movie was filmed in a later era, I suspect there would be tense moments across race lines as well, but the underlying feeling of many on the jury is that poor people are bad for people poor, and probably criminals. Sports are still a metaphor for manly man American relationships.

Stray Notes:

– The Man From Earth would be a great LARP. Come up with an absurd claim about yourself, and then try to defend it in front of close friends. Similar to the game Two Truths and a Lie.

– 12 Angry Men still has a “star”, Henry Fonda. The camera focuses a lot on him, and he seems inexplicably competent in expressing himself, like a distracting Mary Sue.

– In Circle, they briefly develop a theory that maybe they are all on trial and are supposed to judge each other. You could possibly implement this in a multi-user vote-off Chatroulette format.

– In The Man From Earth, he introduces his crazy claim as a hypothetical first. He says “What would it look like if a Cro-Magnon managed to live to present day?” They discuss this for 20 minutes or so before he says “I am immortal”. I think this is a great demonstration of how to convince people of seemingly implausible facts.

Other Small Space Narrative Posts

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Books Read 2017

The absolute coolest book I read this year was Vernor Vinge’s A Deepness in the Sky


Roadside Picnic – Arkady and Boris Strugatsky – Jan 12, 2017

Jonathan Strange and Mr. Norrell – Susanna Clarke – Jan 27, 2017

The New Bottoming Book – Dossie Easton & Janet W Hardy – Feb 14, 2017

Beyond The Rift – Peter Watts – Feb 15, 2017

The Second Machine Age – Erik Brynjolfsson & Andrew McAfee – Feb 17, 2017

Hydrogen Sonata – Iain M. Banks – Feb 25, 2017

Ready Player One – Ernest Cline – March 6, 2017

A Deepness in the Sky – Vernor Vinge – March 20, 2017

The New Topping Book – Dossie Easton & Janet W Hardy – Apr 14, 2017

Smut Peddler 2014 – Apr 22, 2017

The Quantum Thief – Hannu Rajaneimi – Apr 27, 2017

Zeroth Law (Digitesque Book 1) – Guerric Haché – May 9, 2017

How to Appear Perfectly Indifferent While Crying on the Inside – Jay Winston Ritchie – May 11, 2017

Star Wars 26: Yoda’s Secret War: Part I – Jason Aaron – May 12, 2017

First Angels (Digitesque Book 2) – Guerric Haché – May 30, 2017

The Rise and Fall of D.O.D.O – Neal Stephenson and Nicole Galland – Jun 17, 2017

The Last Wish – Andrzej Sapkowski – Jun 18, 2017

Arrows of the Queen – Mercedes Lackey – Jun 19, 2017

The Witling – Vernor Vinge – Jun 21, 2017

Sapiens: A Brief History of Humankind – Yuval Noah Harari – Jun 29, 2017

Crossed: A Tale of the Fourth Crusade – Nicole Galland – July 2, 2017

The Painter of Modern Life – Charles Baudelaire – July 11, 2017

Masters of Doom: How Two Guys Created an Empire and Transformed Pop Culture – David Kushner – July 26, 2017

Bioenergetics Primer for Exercise Science – Jie Kang – July 27, 2017

The Mythical Man-Month – Frederick P. Brooks, Jr. – Aug 4, 2017

The Lean Startup – Eric Ries – Aug 6, 2017

The Left Hand of Darkness – Ursula K. Leguin – Aug 10, 2017

The Night of January 16th – Ayn Rand – Aug 11, 2017

Steven Spielberg: A Retrospective – Richard Schickel – Aug 14, 2017

Can Jokes Bring Down Governments? – Metahaven – Aug 20, 2017

Rainbows End – Vernor Vinge – Sept 4, 2017

The Man Who Sold the Moon (short story collection) – Robert Heinlein – Sept 7, 2017

The Five Love Languages – Gary Chapman – Sept 8, 2017

Ingress Origins – Niantic – Sept 16, 2017

Digitesque: Second Contact – Guerric Haché – Sept 28, 2017

Old Man’s War – John Scalzi – Oct 7, 2017

The Ghost Brigades – John Scalzi – Oct 17, 2017

Seven Against Chaos – Harlan Ellison, Paul Chadwick, Ken Steacy – Oct 18, 2017

The Crying of Lot 49 – Thomas Pynchon – Oct 26, 2017

The Sundered Realm, The War of Powers #1 – Robert E. Vardeman, Victor Milan – Nov 2, 2017

Stephen King – It – Nov 16, 2017

Debugging Teams: Better Productivity Through Collaboration – Brian Fitzpatrick & Ben Collins-Sussman – Dec 9, 2017

Crysis Legion – Peter Watts – Dec 23, 2017

Artemis – Andy Weir – Dec 24, 2017

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Wonderful Projects I Did With Microsoft’s Kinect

Microsoft has ceased manufacturing the Kinect. Here’s some projects, art and research, academic and industrial, that I could only have done with the Kinect.

The Role of Physical Controllers in Motion Video Gaming, 2011:
Paper here.
Video here
A study where I empirically compared the cognitive/physiological effect of Wii-style versus Kinect-style versus hypothetical 6-dof controller-style (cough VR) motion video gaming.
Inside scoop: Even though this work was at Microsoft Research, I actually did this work before a Windows SDK for the Kinect was actually available, even internally. So, my first week of work was building a system that streamed Kinect data from developer Xbox hardware to a PC. Thus began my long history of hacking novel hardware and software to make interesting demos before it should be feasibly possible. I even had the Kinect for Windows SDK team ask me later how I did it, assuming I’d somehow done their work already for them!

Kinect Fusion, some of the first real-time SLAM in 2011:

I’m in the video demoing some of the capabilities from 6:00 – 6:40

Tweetris, 2011:

A two-player video game where players made shapes from the game Tetris, with their bodies. This is what got me interested in building experiences that turned players into actors, in a shared public setting. Basically the origin of my interest in digitally-augmented participatory theatre games for novice performers.
The team for this was pretty big. We did the original Tweetris installation at a Toronto-based arts festival called Nuit Blanche. Derek Reilly later remounted it several times in Halifax at a similar festival called Nocturne.
Myself and collaborators wrote a pretty in-depth study of player behaviour, which won an award (pardon my horrendous beard, etc. etc., grad school).

Kinect Body Paint, 2012:

Built at a Microsoft-sponsored jam session at the Pervasive 2012 conference

Shapeshifter, inspired by Tweetris, that I worked on with Kyle Duffield until late 2013.

While it worked well as an art installation, most people’s living rooms were too small for Shapeshifter’s intense kinetic movements, so we shelved it. I’ve dreamed of bringing it back some day! Sidebar: this was already from an era where I was a wayyyy worse programmer. I was a good research programmer, but a bad video game programmer, since I was easily bogged down in continually re-inventing the wheel/creating a better mouse trap. I’ve since become way better, but that’s a topic for another day.

Background Activity, a Kinect-Captured Dataset of typical living room gestures. Published 2015.

This felt like the most serious, useful research I ever did. Details here:

Improv Remix, my PhD thesis, published 2016.

Where I built a system for improv performers to record and replay their movement. Sort of like a loop pedal for improv comedy, with some Tupac hologram thrown in there. Credit to theatre lighting and projection designer Montgomery C. Martin for making the holographic part work. One of the curious constraints from this project was that I had to write a library to detect whole-body gestures from behind the users. For this, I invented a UX paradigm called the Vitruvian Menu, which you can read about, among other things like theories of interactive theatre, in my PhD thesis.

Replacing live performers with virtual avatars, 2016

Here combined with a Vive, I can swap out someone’s body with a live motion-captured avatar.

Live motion capture in virtual reality theatre (Raktor), 2017

As part of Raktor, I implemented a way for actors to puppet virtual avatars as part of a live stage show. You can see me puppeting a wizard in the demo reel, and later Jasper puppeting a fairy. Unlike other mocap systems, even real cheap ones like Vive trackers, there’s nothing to put on or take off when using the Kinect, which made it perfect for quick, spontaneous running around on stage taking control of virtual characters.

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Downloading a TV episode I had already paid for, in a different country

:| :| :| :| :|

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Nomadic Immersive Digital Experience Creator Kit

15″ 2015 Macbook Pro (the last one before USB-C)
2x lighting cables. Second one is 2 metres long; helpful for AR debugging.
Wired mouse (helpful for 3d modelling or level design work
Various chargers, including a battery charger
3D printed phone stand (critical for AR work, thanks @philnelson)
Bridge HMD + Structure Sensor + Charger
Bridge 6dof Controller
Gear VR + Samsung Galaxy S6
Game Controller (for Minecraft in Gear VR, for playing on airplanes)
iPhone 6S (my normal/ARKit dev work phone)
2x Bluetooth iBeacons (Estimote, XYFindIt)

Wallet (includes credit-card size bottle opener/multi-tool)
Proof that I’m a resident of Canada (crossing into the US has been weird in the past):
– Hard copies of ongoing contracts
– Sublet agreement for a place in Toronto

Notebook, blank pages
D20/D&D Dice Set
Graphic Novel “Ingress: Origins”

Toiletries case, including folding toothbrush
Sugar pills (just in case)
Advil (just in case)
Emergency migraine medicine (expensive, prescription, just in case)
Deodorant (Old Spice)
Lock (for gyms)

Rolling suitcase
Yellow REI computer bag with padded laptop section (so useful)

Biking-oriented, sweat-wicking jeans (Duer L2X)
Snapchat Spectacles
3 pairs of underwear
3 pairs of socks
Various wizardy shirts and jackets
Workout clothes
Workout shoes
Various leather things
Leather belt

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Immersive Theatre Roundup: D&D Yoga

Yesterday, I saw/experienced the show “D&D Yoga”, in the Toronto Fringe Festival.

This is a literal combination these two things, which worked in some surprising ways, didn’t work in some surprising ways. It is a yoga class, run by a real-life yoga instructor Christine Desrochers, during which you go on an actual Dungeons and Dragons adventure, with dice rolling and character sheets and hit points and an inventory. Here’s my character sheet:

dnd yoga char sheet

This is immersive theatre at its most experimental and Fringiest. You should see it.

Other people have written reviews about the show, and I’m specifically going to cover the immersiveness of it. I haven’t done much yoga, but the meditation/yoga I’ve done has always been about bringing your mind to a place of suggestiveness and relaxation, that particularly allows you to feel, temporarily somewhere else. There’s the typical “imagine yourself on a beach” or “imagine yourself in a forest, with birds chirping”. These are mainstays of meditative/yogic experiences. In a typical D&D setup, this immersive, imagination-provoking information is delivered while everyone is sitting, with their eyes open, probably with a beer in hand, while at least one person is looking over their character sheet and doing needless math, and another is requesting the volume go up on a Skype connection.

The most immersive parts of the experience were when the yoga instructor was guiding us through poses related to our dungeon crawl: pushing a boulder out of the way, climbing a wall, shimmying through a crack in the rock, hiding against a wall from goblins, trying to escape from flesh-eating vines (I rolled a Nat 20 and got to notify the party early). This made me wish for more narrative exercise experiences, where my imagination is engaged while my body is being used.

When I run or play D&D sessions, it’s highly banter-y. People interrupt with insane ideas, there are jokes, the tone is that people are encouraged to try to do things and it’s the job of the DM to let them know if they shouldn’t. You’re encouraged not to self-censor. This felt at-odds with an experience where a Dungeonmaster/Yoga Instructor is guiding you through poses as you’re doing a dungeon crawl. In typical D&D, you could say: “Instead of rappelling down, I’m going to use my bag as a parachute”, and it’s up to the DM to come up with a roll for that, while everyone laughs. For this type of show, it would be an un-yogic experience to pause and have the Dungeonyogamaster come up with a suitable roll and pose for you.

Just by itself, the one-shot campaign designed for the show is quite clever. Like I said above, it has to feel interactive without too much player intervention, and it even includes a clever twist in the end, at least in my playthrough. It makes me want more immersive theatre exercise. More! I demand anyone that reads this make more in that genre!

We were given a class in the beginning (Warrior, Rogue, or Mage). Each had a separate attack yoga pose, as well as out-of-combat yogic abilities. (I’m not joking; this was tightly done and I’m giggling at how literally hilarious this design is). One awkward thing was that we had to roll our dice, on the ground, before doing our attack pose. I kept forgetting to roll the dice before, and when we went through to see how everyone did, I had to reach down and roll quickly. It makes me wish for some sort of in-hand dice.

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Splitting a big, single-page pdf into print-size pages

I’m currently putting together a grant application. This means I need to get together documentation and press for what I’ve done. I need to submit this all on printed physical paper. URLs or pdf files by themselves are not enough.

I’m on macOS. Normally, you can just print a webpage to pdf from the browser. However, for some crazily-made websites, this doesn’t work and creates broken formatting. I had to use a plugin (which I now forget, because I’ve since switched computers and it was a few months ago) to print these broken webpages. The plugin outputs the page as a single page large pdf, like so:

Screenshot 2017-06-28 10.17.09

Unfortunately, this is not “ready to print” yet.

The Problem:
I have several single-page pdfs with page sizes that are much larger than 8.5″ x 11″. I want to split these into pages so that they’re ready to print on a 8.5″ x 11″ paper. Fortunately, the layout of the big pdf is such that we can split it into a single column; we don’t have to have split the page left-to-right, only vertically.

Trying to find a solution:
Nothing seems to do this out of the box. In fact, most of the current pdf management tools seem unprepared for non-standard pdf page size.

This is a hard-to-Google problem, in that all the ways to specify it are ambiguous for the purposes of a search engine. Is there a general term for these kinds of problems? When you search for “splitting pdf” or “crop pdf” or “separate pdf pages” the results assume you want to take a pdf document with several pages in it, and remove some of the pages, without affecting individual pages themselves.

macOS’s Preview app’s print dialogue won’t let me print a single page pdf onto multiple pages. When I try to adjust scale of a single pdf page, it crops the page rather than lets it overflow:

Screenshot 2017-06-28 10.26.35

I thought I could maybe use lovely command-line tool image magick convert to take each single-page pdf and crop it into a series of 8.5″x11″ pages. Unfortunately, looks like my source pdfs all have varying widths. While it may be possible, there’s no immediately convenient way to measure the width of a source pdf and split it into semi-overlapping tiles of a given ratio.

I heard that Adobe Acrobat would let me crop pdfs. I installed it via homebrew cask, which is how I install any application whenever possible. After installing it, I that the cropping pdf feature was only available in Acrobat Pro. Cropping a pro feature!? Seems crazy, but given how arduous my search had been so far, maybe that’s not actually that crazy.

Fortunately, I’m already paying for Adobe Creative Cloud at $50 USD/month.

I found the pdf splitting interface in the print dialogue (more on that later). However, Adobe Acrobat won’t print to pdf. And, Adobe won’t print to macOS’s print dialogue – trying to do this crashes Adobe Acrobat. Adobe Acrobat would only print to real printers that were connected to my computer, which I couldn’t do because I’m sending pdfs to a print shop via email.


So, I needed to make a virtual printer that showed up in my print dialogue, but actually printed to pdf. I found one called VipRiser. Here’s the virtual printer:

Screenshot 2017-06-28 10.40.15

With VipRiser, you can choose where the pdf goes. I tried setting it to Desktop, and then Downloads, which VipRiser accepted, yet when I tried to print, it would hang for a bit then told me it “couldn’t find the folder”. So, I selected the “Open in Preview” option instead. Then, after the resulting pdf opened, I could save it to the desired location. This yak is a Matryoshka doll.

VipRiser worked fine after that, but it froze if my Mac ever slept. It also hanged for a shockingly long time while printing documents of only a few pages, like 30 seconds.

Now that actually outputting a document is solved, lets go back to the Adobe Acrobat print interface. Under the “Page Size & Handling” Tab, select “Poster” to choose your tiling options.

Screenshot 2017-06-28 00.11.48

On the right side, you can see the dotted lines cut the big single page into 3 pages. However, the top of the first page isn’t aligned with the top of the original page. I couldn’t see how to fix this. I just decided to accept this and hoped it wouldn’t make my application look too weird.

You can see I set the “Tile Scale” to 60%; I found this out manually. Note in the page visualization on the right, it tells you the document size is “8.5 x 33 inches”. If you make the Tile Scale one bigger, to 61%, it changes the page layout so it’s 11 inches wide, ignoring the Orientation setting:

Screenshot 2017-06-28 00.11.58

But then it worked. Holy shit.

I come across these sorts of “I just want to do a simple thing” deep dives more often than I’d like, so I’ve started a new category: yak-shaving posts. If you aren’t familiar with the definition of yak shaving:

[MIT AI Lab, after 2000: orig. probably from a Ren & Stimpy episode.] Any seemingly pointless activity which is actually necessary to solve a problem which solves a problem which, several levels of recursion later, solves the real problem you’re working on.


Posted in technical, yak-shaving | 2 Comments

Git LFS Sucks the Least: Prototyping and Version Control with Large Binary Assets

Here’s a story of my struggles with version control at Raktor as I push it to the limit for a variety projects in the Unity engine. Pour a drink and commiserate with me.

I love git. My background is in handling large, complex codebases that go all the way down to the metal, so distributed version control with branching and rebasing is essential. As I juggle many different third party libraries and projects while pumping out MVPs, a robust, well-documented repo history is important to diagnose when bugs appeared and why. I use git-blame, git-cherry-pick and git-bisect regularly.

For our large repo, I’ve found git + git-lfs to be “good enough but still terrible at handling large binary assets”> so here’s my experience over the past year and a half. It’s important to emphasize that this repo is intentionally messy; we’re moving at the speed of prototyping, and I’m not taking the time to worry about whether we’ll use an asset frequently before we add it. I’m also not taking time to cull assets that we haven’t used in a while, as we are often remounting old projects. We’re not worrying about a “shippable” state, we’re worrying about a “runnable” state as we move fast and break things for demos we are running ourselves.

Here’s a look into the repo, a total of 13 GB and 504 commits to date:


Partway through development, as the repo started to get very heavy, I reorganized it so that any asset content that was updated infrequently was moved to the “Dressing Room” folder, which weighs in at 10.7 GB. I fantasized that, at some point, I’d move this content out of git and manage it separately. This is mostly Unity Asset Store downloads.

This repo is used to ship to 4 separate platforms (macOS, Windows, Android, iOS) and we use third party libraries with inconsistently and naively documented compatibility with different versions of Unity (at the moment, 5.6.0, 5.4.3xEditorVR-p3, 5.4.2, 5.3.4).


Since even individual projects need to be compiled on multiple platforms to run, I need to switch back and before between these quickly to build and test. Often, when switching platform or Unity version, this triggers an asset re-import. Unity Cache Server helps a bit with this. However, whether the asset is being imported from scratch, or “downloaded” from the cache server (I only ever used localhost), this can take up to 10 minutes on my faster Windows machine, or up to half an hour on my slower Macbook.

I switch back and forth from programming on macOS and Windows,
and MonoDevelop and Visual Studio have different default attitudes toward whitespace. I haven’t dumped enough time into figuring out the most smooth way to do things. Also, I haven’t been able to get a handle on git’s autoclrf settings in a way that “just works”. One time a bunch of ^M showed up in my .gitignore file and I had no idea why, and didn’t want to touch it.

Unity Cache Server
While Cache Server has been great, a different version ships with each version of Unity. It’s not clear to me what a given Cache Server version’s compatibility is going backwards and forwards. Note that since my machines move around physically, I’m only ever using a localhost cache server, and haven’t shared one between machines.
Scary Anecdote: I once had two copies of the big repo on the same computer, for two separate versions of Unity. (This was to handle another problem I’ll get to later.) Unity Cache Server was running, and both versions of Unity had been linked to it. I opened repo A with Unity version A, then closed it with no changes. Then, I opened repo B with Unity version B, then closed it with no changes. Then, I opened repo A with Unity version A again, and Unity downloaded changes from the cache server! What’s going on there!? I wish it was more transparent what the Cache Server was doing.

Special Characters
Special characters that appeared in an asset downloaded from the Unity store have been the bane of my existence and will not die.

Here’s the results of git status immediately after a fresh clone on macOS:
Screenshot 2017-05-25 19.14.01
Here’s an asset appearing twice in Unity because it has a special character:
Screenshot 2017-05-25 19.15.52

These files show as modified even when they haven’t been yet, and re-appear every time I have to git clone, or navigate forwards or backwards over the commit where I made changes to them. I don’t how to fix this problem, and how much effort I should put into it. I’m guessing it’s a macOS <-> Windows compatibility issue, but to solve it once and for all, I think I’d need to go and edit git history to excise them from ever existing, right? For all I know, the special characters that refuse to die may also persist in the Library or Cache Server cache and resurrect themselves after I naively believe they are gone, like some cyberpunk version of The Thing. I’d love advice on this.

Git LFS: Large File Storage
Git-lfs is, in principle, a great idea: for big binary files that aren’t going to change often, keep them outside of the regular git tree and only download them as needed. Don’t store the entire binary files’ history in the .git directory. GitHub charges a small premium for Git-lfs bandwidth, and if it worked 100%, it would be totally worth it ($5 per month for 50 GB of bandwidth). Git-lfs is open-source and managed by GitHub themselves, and clearly aimed at keeping git-familiar devs like me using git instead of switching to a more game-tailored version control system.

Installing and running git and git-lfs on Windows is fucked. By way of explanation, I’m used to Unix-based systems where there seems to be one agreed-on method to install and access programs. On Windows, I had to resort to using the GUI app GitHub for Windows to install git because it sets up GitHub’s 2FA right, and I couldn’t get the keys (via Putty, etc.) working without it.
When uploading or downloading large assets, sometimes the network would hang, or the git operation would fail for some other reason. This appeared to leave the repo in a corrupt state. While git status would finish execution, files would show as changed even if they hadn’t been, and git checkout . would hang indefinitely, even if the files were relatively small, like a jpg. Poking around in the git lfs issues, it appears that this is due to smudge errors (smudging, I think, is the process where a file tracked by git is replaced by a git-lfs pointer in the .git history). I would end up with a repo that was corrupt due to an unrecoverable smudge error. Hey, take a look at how many corrupt repos I have, each of which are ~13 GB and required me to freshly download all of those hot gigabytes!


To avoid having to freshly re-download, I tried “backing up” my repo periodically by zipping it, but this seemed to cause even more problems with OS-specific files getting added on unzip. Zipping itself took ~15 minutes due to the sheer number of files (29,542) and folders (1,460).

On further investigation, git-lfs 2.0 supposedly handled smudge error recovery much better. However, git lfs version showed I was on 1.5.5. I upgraded to git-lfs 2.0 and then continued to diagnose issues, but kept having them. Imagine my gaslight-y horror when git lfs version revealed I’d been reverted to 1.5.5 somehow! Imagine how horrifying it was to discover this when I was also trying to diagnose other reasons why the repo was corrupt, and everything I was tried had processing times from 15 minutes to an hour!
Turns out that the shell launched from GitHub for Windows uses git-lfs installed at %UserProfile%/AppData/Local/GitHub/lfs-amd64_1.5.5/git-lfs and if you update it to a later version, like I did, it reverts! So there’s no way to update the git lfs version with GitHub for Windows to a more stable version.

Next, I installed git-lfs via the terminal offered through Sourcetree. Somehow, first installing Github for Windows, and letting it make 2FA settings, and then installing Sourcetree, and then installing git-lfs 2.0 via Sourcetree’s terminal, made it work. Before, when I’d straight installed Sourcetree, I couldn’t get it to work without GitHub for Windows setting up 2FA right. Yes, I know about GitHub’s auth tokens and I know Sourcetree 1.8 and 1.9 sometimes cached server passwords in a buggy way.

(Let’s take a breath and remind ourselves that my goal in all this is to get to work, not diagnose git issues.)

As a final git-lfs puzzle, periodically, git-lfs seems to “discover” files that were already in commit history that should have been added to lfs a long time ago, but somehow have not been yet. Is there some git-lfs-doctor I can run? I’d love to know.

FYI, here’s my .gitattributes:
$ cat .gitattributes
*.psd filter=lfs diff=lfs merge=lfs -text
*.png filter=lfs diff=lfs merge=lfs -text
*.jpg filter=lfs diff=lfs merge=lfs -text
*.tga filter=lfs diff=lfs merge=lfs -text
*.tif filter=lfs diff=lfs merge=lfs -text
*.tiff filter=lfs diff=lfs merge=lfs -text
*.mp3 filter=lfs diff=lfs merge=lfs -text
*.wav filter=lfs diff=lfs merge=lfs -text
*.mp4 filter=lfs diff=lfs merge=lfs -text
*.fbx filter=lfs diff=lfs merge=lfs -text
*.xcf filter=lfs diff=lfs merge=lfs -text
*.bytes filter=lfs diff=lfs merge=lfs -text
*.dll filter=lfs diff=lfs merge=lfs -text
*.zip filter=lfs diff=lfs merge=lfs -text
*.7z filter=lfs diff=lfs merge=lfs -text
*.rar filter=lfs diff=lfs merge=lfs -text
*LightingData.asset filter=lfs diff=lfs merge=lfs -text
*.exr filter=lfs diff=lfs merge=lfs -text

Alternatives: Plastic SCM
I know there’s game-dev-oriented version control systems like Perforce, but I’ve been resistant because git has been so powerful and anything I read about others indicates that they aren’t as much.

I’ve had Plastic SCM strongly recommended by a developer I trust, so I gave it a shot over a game jam, taking a copy of my existing big repo and making 98 commits over 72 hours, as a solo dev.

Here’s a peak behind the curtains at my commit history:
cm usage

– the output of cm diff is not helpful
– Files are often labelled as “changed” even if they’ve only been “checked out”, and there are no actual changes, not even whitespace.
– I don’t like that commit labels are incrementing numbers, not hashes. I didn’t try branching and merging, but this doesn’t make me optimistic that the results will be easy to read.
– Pre-commit, there’s no git-like concept of staging. While I’m working in git, I use staging to indicate to self what parts of a current chunk of work are “good to go” versus “still messy/working on it”.
– The Plastic SCM client I used, as far as I can tell, allowed for only one “active workspace”, aka a repository, at once. This limitation is pretty insane. While I’m all for big mono-repos, when I’m diagnosing behaviour of external libraries who have their own git history, I need to be able to examine and operate on multiple histories at once.
– Plastic SCM’s ignore format is not as regex-friendly as git’s .gitignore, so I could not rename the same file and get going.

Even Other Alternatives
I refuse to make my own version control system like Jon Blow. My needs as a developer can’t be that insane right?

Other Question: What shell should I be using on Windows?
Like I said, I’m used to using macOS or *nix systems, which have a one-stop-shopping shell. On Windows, we have: cmd, Powershell, Powershell opened via GitHub for Windows (which adds GitHub for Windows’ git to its path), the MINGW64 terminal launched by SourceTree (which, oddly, is missing fundamentals like man and which). Finally, there’s Bash for Windows, which installs its own Unix environment. However, anecdotally, I’ve found any git operations via Bash for Windows take about 5x longer than via Powershell. I’m not sure if this is due to some level of abstraction, but it makes it pretty unusable. Also, none of these shells support copy-and-paste as elegantly as macOS does, so I automatically feel disdain towards them.

Back to Git-LFS: As I was trying out different Windows shells, I once ran git checkout . on a repo using lfs in a git environment that didn’t have lfs. This corrupted the repo unrecoverably, so I had to download all 13 GB from scratch yet again. Please: I’d love a command like git-lfs-doctor or git-lfs-unbreak that can diagnose and repair repos.

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State of Virtual Reality Venues in Toronto

For the last few years, I’ve been a “VR tech professional”, which means I have, on my desk, various pieces of Virtual/Augmented/Mixed Reality equipment. These will get cheaper, but at the moment are dubious buys for the average person. Despite companies’ best efforts, set-up is still a confusing pain.

Some room-scale Virtual Reality hardware like the Vive or Oculus Touch requires a dedicated, calibrated space. These don’t exist in a lot of homes. When I was making a multiplayer Kinect game a few years ago, one of the limiting problems was that clear space in the average person’s living rooms was just not enough.

So let’s talk about ticketed Virtual Reality Venues, both temporary and permanent, using specific examples in Toronto. VR venues can serve a few purposes:
– equipment rental
– a dedicated, professional space setup
– a night out away from your living space

Vivid VR ran a pop-up Virtual Reality Cinema on Dundas Street West in the Summer of 2016. $20, 1 hour. I was really excited to see their approach; having incorporated virtual reality into a couple performances with Raktor so far, I wanted to see what a company that called itself a “VR Cinema” would do. The space was filled with swivel chairs. They handed out Gear VRs preloaded with some 360 films and over-ear headphones. They told us to put the headset on, and then only one of the earpieces, so we could hear their instructions. The organizer then started a countdown and we were all to point at the same movie icon in the Oculus Video app and press the GearVR touchpad to start it at the same time, and then put the last earphone on. So we put the earphones on and watched “together”, but actually isolated.
I was disappointed by this – I was expecting bespoke multi-headset-synced-playback software. I was there with a friend and I wanted us to be able to talk to each other during the movie and call attention when we noticed interesting stuff going on. I can’t recall the movies themselves, but they were guilty of needlessly incorporating movement; in the first scene we were mounted on top of a car.
I had already owned a GearVR at this point for at least 6 months, so the value proposition (for me) of this cinema was negligible. The tickets were totally sold out, even though it felt like merely equipment rental.

The Toronto International Film Festival (TIFF) ran a summer 2016 VR event series called POP which has, so far, been the best-run VR event I’ve ever seen. They based it out of a gallery space in their big King Street East building. Cleverly, each Vive or Oculus station used a ceiling-mounted cable with a spring-loaded dog leash to keep the cable out of the way. Entry price was $23.75 for a few dozen VR experiences, and an attendant at each station ensured visitors did not get disoriented and things ran smoothly. Raktor premiered our asymmmetric multiplayer storytelling experience Inverse Dollhouse here, and having an attendant I could train to run the experience and smooth any bumps for new people was great. TIFF POP was very successful ticket-sales-wise, each in the series selling out weeks in advance.


I currently live in Kensington Market, and within 500 m of two (TWO!) VR-only arcades.

Toronto VR Games, at 55 Kensington Ave., has a very genuinely cyberpunk-y feel. It’s a former Chinese fruit market, keeping some of the signage, and added some sick dragon art.

Toronto VR Games

Inside, it’s lit like a submarine (dark red) and the VR station dividers are black curtains. It feels exactly like the place I’d go if I wanted myself to become emaciated in VR while I did some 96 hour hack to steal a corp’s info in a William Gibson novel. There’s a fridge with sugar drinks I’m sure I could pay the staff to pour in my mouth so I wouldn’t have to take my headset off. This place has mostly Vive stations, and some Oculus stations in the back, but no Oculus Touch yet. Currently $28.25/hour.

To contrast, VRPlayIn at 294 College Street is well-lit and feels like somewhere I could take a risk-averse suit-wearing person or the kind of person who brings their kids around in a van. VRPlayIn opened quietly open a couple weeks ago.


VRPlayIn only has Vive stations, and is currently $29-$39/hour depending on day/time of the week, though considering the place is so nice I feel they could charge much more. They even have a large private room that legitimately feels like a private karaoke room. I’ve dreamed of that “bookable holodeck” setup for a few years now and this is the first time I’ve seen it.

Apparently, VRPlayIn is a wing of VNovus, a VR software studio. VNovus has made an in-headset VR app launcher and intro experience. This seems redundant to the work that Steam and Oculus has done, but I suppose everyone has a their own ideas of what users’ first contact with VR should be.

Toronto VR Games vs. VRPlayIn: VRPlayIn deserves your money more because they are a genuinely nicer space, but if you want to be confronted by cyberpunk aesthetic realness, Toronto VR Games is for you. They both have a very large selection of experiences, though if you want to play something specific, you can check in advance.

There’s another upcoming VR Venue: House of VR opening May 6th. An article claimed they were Toronto’s first VR lounge; tbd if they’re lounge-y enough to not count as an arcade. They do promise to have at least one Mixed Reality green screen area – though probably not as good as the state of the art: LIV.

These chairs though.😍 @_houseofvr #comeseethefuture #interiordesign

A post shared by Stephanie Payne (@sppayne) on

Check out the @citynewstoronto exclusive on #houseofvr tonight at 6!!!! #citynewstoronto #vr #wefamous

A post shared by House of VR (@_houseofvr) on

Raiders’ e-Sports Centre is a surprise: it looks, sounds, smells and feels like a Sports Bar, but it’s e-Sports, not, like, actual sports. Big-screen TVs on almost every wall show mostly League of Legends, but also various Twitch streamers’ channels. A big area with leather booths serves standard beer and pub food. To break from a normal sports bar, there are a few dozen bookable desks with PCs, just like an internet cafe. There are a few more bookable booths with multiplayer game consoles. There are a couple VR stations with Vives, called the Atomic District. Pricing is $25/hour. Unlike the other current VR arcades in Toronto, you can actually get food and alcohol here, so it’s approaching a real party venue. Here, at least one of Vive setups is surrounded on 3 sides with open space, unlike being in a booth at VRPlayIn or Toronto VR Games, so if you want to be performative, this is the spot.

Electric Perfume is a “studio and event space” near Pape Station that, full disclosure, I’ve run multiple events out of and taught workshops at. With a projector, wraparound white walls, and a single well-constructed Vive setup it’s the most holodeck-y of any setup I’ve seen so far. If you want to book out a space to exhibit something beautiful, this is the spot. In the land of traditional theatre, “black box theatre” is a space with totally black walls and drapes that you can make look like any environment with lighting. Electric Perfume is a perfect “white box theatre” space, if you bring your own projectors for the other walls. In the future, I hope for “green box theatre” spaces for wraparound mixed reality.

Electric Perfume

Professional VR Developer Post-Note: If I want to run VR events or playtests with custom or pre-release software, I need to be able to install my own executable or bring my own machine(s) and plug it into their VR rigs. So far, I’ve asked VRPlayIn about this, and they were a little resistant about me installing my own software on their machines. I’m hoping that House of VR or another venue is less so – this would enable VR release parties and other special events. I or someone else shouldn’t have to set up an entire temporary exhibit like TIFF POP when we want to show off something non-standard.

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Proposing the (Bill) Paxton Number

The Erdős Number measures how far you are from mathematician Paul Erdős via coauthoring academic papers*. The Bacon Number measures how far you are from actor Kevin Bacon via costarring in films.

In honour of the late Bill Paxton, I now propose The Paxton Number.
Bill Paxton has the totally-not-dubious honour of being killed, on screen, by The Terminator, an Alien, and a Predator.

See this compilation:

Paxton Number: Bill Paxton has a Paxton Number of Zero. Actors that have been killed on-screen by a monster who has also killed Bill Paxton, have a Paxton Number of 1. Anybody else’s number is m+1, where m is the lowest number of anyone else killed by the same monster. For every other actor, their Paxton Number is infinity.

Bill Paxton‘s Paxton Number is Zero, and he was killed by Predator in Predator 2.
Jesse Ventura‘s Paxton Number is 1, as he was killed by Predator in The Predator. He was also killed by Poison Ivy, as played by Uma Thurman, in Batman & Robin.
Ralf Moeller‘s Paxton Number is 2, as he was also killed by Poison Ivy in Batman & Robin. He was also killed by The Scorpion King, as played by Dwayne “The Rock” Johnson in The Scorpion King.
Randy Couture‘s Paxton Number is 3, as he was also killed by The Scorpion King, this time played by Michael Copon, in The Scorpion King 2: Rise of a Warrior.

Other Notes:
The rule is based on the monster in the story, not the actor. So, we can’t count Paxton Number when actors are killed by Arnold Schwarzenegger when he plays Terminator equivalently to when he plays Conan the Barbarian – those are separate monsters.

Looking For:
There are several murderously profiling villains. Let’s find a finite Paxton Number for one of their victims and then we can give finite Paxton Numbers to whole swaths of people. They are:
– Magneto
– Godzilla
– Darth Vader
– Dracula

Collab credit: Cian Cruise & Jan Streekska

Possibly useful resource:

*Fact: My Erdős Number is 4. Co-authorship via Ravin Balakrishnan; Michael Chi Hung Wu; Maria M. Klawe; Paul Erdős. co-authorship graph.

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